Ahsan Sofyan, Utari Putri Aznur



Sistem pembelajaran dalam suatu proses belajar yang diduga mampu meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir inovatif siswa adalah implementasi model Open-ended dimana model pembelajaran ini lebih menekankan pada usaha bagaimana siswa sampai pada jawaban daripada ketepatan jawaban semata. Kemampuan berpikir inovatif mampu meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir siswa menjadi lebih kompleks dan mendalam. Dalam mencapai tujuan tersebut maka pendidik harus memfasilitasinya melalui penggunaan model, metode, media, pendekatan, strategi pembelajaran yang bisa menunjang peningkatan kemampuan berpikir siswa. Pengukuran pada penerapan model Open-ended diperoleh rata-rata nilai pretest pada kelas eksperimen sebesar 65,17 sedangkan kelas kontrol memperoleh nilai 73,67. Kemudian setelah dilakukan post test pada kelas eksperimen mengalami peningkatan nilai rata-rata 81,08. Sedangkan kelas kontrol sebesar 78,79 dengan kategori sedang. Aktivitas yang paling menonjol selama proses penerapan model Open-ended yang menggambarkan terciptanya suasana belajar yang berpusat pada siswa, belajar bersama, dan berdiskusi antar siswa menunjukkan adanya peningkatan keaktifan siswa dalam proses pembelajaran.

Kata kunci: Berpikir Inovatif; Model Open-ended; Teori Belajar Bermakna



The learning system in a learning process that is thought to be able to improve students' innovative thinking skills is the implementation of the Open-ended model where this learning model places more emphasis on the effort of how students arrive at answers rather than the mere accuracy of answers. Innovative thinking skills can improve students' thinking skills to become more complex and deep. In achieving these goals, educators must facilitate it through the use of models, methods, media, approaches, and learning strategies that can support the improvement of students' thinking skills. Measurements on the application of the Open-ended model obtained an average pretest value of 65.17 in the experimental class while the control class obtained a value of 73.67. Then after the post-test was carried out in the experimental class it experienced an increase in the average value of 81.08. While the control class was 78.79 in the moderate category. The most prominent activity during the process of implementing the Open-ended model which describes the creation of a student-centered learning atmosphere, learning together, and discussing among students shows an increase in student activity in the learning process.

Keywords: Innovative Thinking; Open-ended model; Meaningful Learning Theory


Berpikir Inovatif; Model Open-ended; Teori Belajar Bermakna

Full Text:



Anderson, L. W. dan D. R. Krathwohl. (2001). A Taxonomy for Learning, teaching, and Assesing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Boston: Allyn & Bacon

Antoni Ballester Vallori, 2014. Meaningful Learning in Practice. Journal of Education and Human DevelopmentDecember2014, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 199-209.ISSN: 2334-296X (Print), 2334-2978 (Online)Copyright

© The Author(s). 2014. All Rights Reserved.Published by American Research Institute for Policy DevelopmentDOI:10.15640/jehd.v3n4a18URL:

Ausubel, D. P. (2000). The acquisition and retention of knowledge. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Badger, E., B. Thomas, (1992). “Open-ended questions in reading,” Practical Assessment, Res. and Evaluation, Vol. 3, No. 4,

Baba, T. (2009). Analysis of socially Open-ended problems in mathematics education from the perspective of values. Journal of Japan Academic Society of Mathematics Education Research in Mathematics Education, Vol.16, 247–252. (In Japanese).

Badger, E., B. Thomas, (1992). “Open-ended questions in reading,” Practical Assessment, Res. and Evaluation, Vol. 3, No. 4,

Becker, Shimada. (1997). The Open-ended Approach. NCTM

Bloom, B.S. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. New York: Longman

Costa, A.L. and Presseisen, B.Z., 1985. Glossary of Thinking Skill, in A.L. Costa (ed). Developing Minds: A Resource Book for Teaching Thinking, Alexandria: ASCD.

Creswell, J. W. & Clark, V. L. P. (2007). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methodes Research. California, USA: Sage Publication.

Filsaime, Dennis.K. (2008). Menguak Rahasia Berpikir Inovatif dan Solutif (Problem Solving). Jakarta: Prestasi Pustakaraya.

Fraenkel, J.R. (2007). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education Sixth Edition. Singapura: Mc Graw Hill

__________, DKK. 2012 How to design and Evaluate Research in Education.edisi 8. San Francisco; Mc Graw Hill PublicationsFreedman,

R. L. H. (1994). Open-ended questioning. Menlo Park: Addison-Wesley Publishing.

Jerry P. Becker, Shigeru Shimada. (1997). The Open-ended approach:a new proposal for teaching mathematics: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

Kadir (2006). Pembelajaran dengan Pendekatan Open-ended tentang soal-soal Terbuka (The Open-ended Approads) IAIN Indonesia Sosial Equity Project (IISEP).

Katsuro, T. (2000). Open-ended Approach and Inprovement of Classroom Teaching Mathematics Education In Japan. Japan Society of Mathematics Education (JSME)

Krathwohl, D. R. 2002. A Revision of Bloom Taxonomy: An Overview. Journal Theory Into Practice, Vol. 41(4)

Maitree Inprasitha, (2006). Open-ended Approach and Teacher Education. Tsukuba Journal of Educational Study in Mathematics. Vol.25, 2006

Mayer, R.E. (2002). Rote versus Meaningful Learning. Theory into Practice,Vol. 41, 226-232.

Novak, J. D. (2002). Meaningful Learning: The Essential Factor for Conceptual Change in Limited or Inappropriate Propositional Hierarchies Leading to Empowerment of Learners. Science Education, Vol. 86, 548-571

Sawada, T. 1997. Developing Lesson Plan. Dalam J. P. Becker & S. Shimada (Ed.). The Open-ended Approach: A New Proposal for Teaching Mathematics. Virginia: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

Sawada, Toshio, 1980. Arithmetic and Mathematics Instruction Based on Open-ended Problems- a Proposal. Tokyo National Institute for Educational Research. Jurnal Centre for Science Education

Shimada, I., & Baba, T. (2015). Transformation of students’ values in the process of solving socially Open-ended problems. In Proc. 39th conference of the international group for the psychology of mathematics education (Vol. 4, pp. 161–168). Hobart, Australia: PME.

Shimada, S. dan Becker, J.P. (1997). The Open-ended Approach: A New Proposal for Teaching Mathematics. Virginia: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

Sugiyono. (2012). Model Penelitian Pendidikan (Pendekatan Kuantitatif, Kualitatif dan R&D). Bandung: Alfabeta

Teúileanu Angela, 2014. Challenges to meaningful learning in social studies – the key competences as an opportunity to students’ active participation, Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 128 (2004) 192-197. © 2014. The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and peer-review under responsibility of EPC KTS and Guest Editors – Dr Cristian Vasile, Dr Mihaela Singer. Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

EQUILIBRIUM: Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan dan Ekonomi is Indexed in :                   
E-ISSN 2614-5839 ||  P-ISSN 02165287