Diskursus Pengelolaan Hutan dan Implikasinya pada Penghidupan Petani (Studi Kasus Hutan Gunung Ciremai Kabupaten Kuningan)

Deni ., Oding Syafrudin

Sari


Perubahan pengelolaan Hutan Gunung Ciremai sejak era Kolonial tentu
memiliki karakteristik yang berbeda dalam cara-cara pengelolaannya terutama
bentuk keterlibatan masyarakat dalam hubungan penguasaan hutannya. Cara
pengelolaan yang berbeda ini dituangkan kedalam Undang-Undang dan peraturan
dimana berbagai kebijakan ini merupakan hasil dari kontestasi aktor yang memiliki
kepentingan yang berbeda-beda serta dipengaruhi atas diskursus pengelolaan hutan.
Penelitian ini merupakan perpaduan dari penelitian sosiologi (bidang sosiologi
kehutanan) dan sosial ekonomi yang bertujuan untuk memahami bentuk-bentuk
diskursus, perubahan kebijakan dan dampak/ implikasinya terhadap petani di sekitar
hutan Gunung Ciremai sejak era Kolonial sampai dengan sekarang. Penelitian
menggunakan paradigma post-positivistik yang dilakukan kombinasi analisis
kualitatif dan analisis kuantitatif.
Hasil penelitian menemukan berbagai dinamika pengelolaan pada hutan
Gunung Ciremai sejak era Kolonial sampai dengan era sekarang. Dinamika dan
perubahan pengelolaan ini dibagi menjadi lima periode melalui intervensi diskursusdiskursus
yang berbeda pada tiap periodenya. Dalam kasus Gunung Ciremai,
diskursus governance yang menghasilkan inovasi pengelolaan PHBM secara formal
dapat meningkatkan akses masyarakat dalam memanfaatkan lahan hutan serta hasil
sumberdayanya. Berubah status Gunung Ciremai menjadi taman nasional sebagai
akibat dari diskursus hidrologi, perlindungan tanah dan air serta diskursus
keanekaragaman hayati maka atas kejadian ini secara formal hak akses masyarakat
dalam memanfaatkan sumberdaya hutan semakin terbatas. Bahwa diskursus
mempengaruhi penghidupan petani juga merupakan benang merah penelitian ini
dimana pengaruh diskursus tersebut semata-mata karena perubahan bentuk akses dan
kontrol sumberdaya hutan pada tiap perubahan kebijakan.


Kata Kunci : Diskursus, Kebijakan, Penghidupan Petani, Gunung Ciremai


Teks Lengkap:

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