Potensi dan Toksisitas Coprinus sp. Liar pada Jerami Padi di Indonesia

Mega Putri Amelya, Ivan Permana Putra, Rudy Hermawan, Rahayu Nurzakiah

Abstract


Jamur merupakan bahan nutraceutical dengan kegunaan dan kandungan nutrisi yang beragam. Jamur liar yang tumbuh di sawah merupakan salah satu alternatif bahan konsumsi oleh sebagian masyarakat Indonesia. Umumnya, masyarakat lokal tersebut merambah jamur jerami (Volvariella volvacea). Namun, beberapa kelompok jamur coprinoid seperti Coprinus spp. juga terdistribusi pada relung yang sama. Bagi non-mikolog atau orang yang telah berpengalaman, tubuh buah muda dari kedua jamur tersebut seringkali sulit dibedakan. Hal ini disebabkan karena morfolonya yang mirip. Selain bermanfaat untuk kesehatan, beberapa spesies dari Coprinus juga memiliki kandungan racun. Selama 2010-2020, terdapat 11 kasus keracunan (48 orang) setelah mengkonsumsi jamur jerami liar di Indonesia. Coprinus merupakan jamur yang cosmopolitan sehingga sangat mudah ditemukan di Indonesia. Jamur ini bisa dimakan hanya padafase mudanya ketika lamelanya belum menghitam atau tudungnya belum meluruh. Keracunan yang muncul diduga disebabkan oleh senyawa coprine dari jamur ini. Informasi terkait karakter identifikasi sederhana dan resiko toksisitas dari jamur Coprinus liar perlu disampaikan ke mayarakat guna mencegah terjadinya keracunan jamur liar di Indonesia.


Keywords


Coprinus; Wild Mushroom; Straw; Nutrition; Toxicity

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