The Urgency of Defining Indonesias National Critical Infrastructure

Anang Setiyawan

Abstract


Abstract: Indonesia has experienced millions of cyber attacks but it has never been able to be handled properly and completely, partly because of weak policies and conventional perspectives in understanding cyber threats. A country's vital infrastructure is related to a country's national interests, so threats to vital infrastructure are tantamount to threatening Indonesia's national interests. The level of use and dependence of a country on information and communication technology is directly proportional to the level of security and defense vulnerability in a country. Communication network connectivity and information technology cause security in this domain to become a separate issue in itself. This study aims to outline the importance of Indonesia to establish a national vital infrastructure in Indonesia in order to prepare Indonesia to face threats in the fifth domain. Determination of national vital infrastructure is urgent because it is closely related to the determination of jurisdiction, national defense and security policies in the cyber domain. This research is a normative study using a comparative approach. The results showed that Indonesia still uses a conventional perspective in seeing the form of threats and determining national vital objects as stipulated in Presidential Regulation No. 63 year 2014. Therefore, in order to face the threats of defense, security as well as national interests of Indonesia in the cyber domain, government needs to evaluate existing policies in accordance with the modern threats, as well as to establish and define Indonesia's vital national infrastructure.

Keywords: national interest, security, defense, critical infrastructure, cyber threat.

Urgensi Penetapan Infrastruktur Vital Nasional Indonesia

Abstrak: Indonesia mengalami jutaan serangan cyber namun tidak pernah dapat ditangani dengan baik dan tuntas, hal ini diantaranya disebabkan karena lemahnya kebijakan dan perspektif konvensional dalam memahami ancaman cyber. Infrastruktur vital suatu Negara sangat terkait dengan kepentingan nasional suatu Negara, sehingga ancaman terhadap infrastruktur ini sama artinya dengan mengancam kepentingan nasional Indonesia. Tingginya penggunaan dan ketergantungan suatu Negara terhadap teknologi informasi dan komunikasi berbanding lurus dengan tingkat kerentanan keamanan dan pertahanan disuatu Negara. Konektifitas jaringan komunikasi dan teknologi informasi menyebabkan keamanan di domain ini menjadi masalah tersendiri yang kompleks. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguraikan pentingnya Indonesia untuk menetapkan dan mendefinisikan infratruktur vital nasional di Indonesia dalam rangka mempersiapkan Indonesia menghadapi ancaman pertahanan dan keamanan di domain kelima. Upaya penentuan infrastruktur vital nasional ini penting segera dilakukan karena berkaitan erat dengan upaya penentuan yurisdiksi, kebijakan pertahanan dan keamanan nasional Indonesia di domain. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian normatif dengan menggunakan pendekatan komparatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Indonesia masih menggunakan perspektif konvensional dalam melihat bentuk Ancaman dan menentukan objek vital nasional sebagaimana diatur dalam Peraturan Presiden No. 63 tahun 2014. Oleh karena itu, dalam rangka menghadapi ancaman pertahanan dan keamanan serta kepentingan nasional indonesia di domain cyber maka pemerintah perlu mengkaji kembali kebijakan yang ada sesuai bentuk ancaman modern dan menetapkan infrastruktur vital nasional milik Indonesia.

Kata kunci: national interest, security, defense, critical infrastructure, cyber threat.


Keywords


critical infrastructure; cyberwarfare; cyberthreat; national security; national defense

Full Text:

PDF

References


Books:

Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2017

Blakely, B. A. (2012). Cyberprints: identifying cyber attackers by feature analysis.

Carter, A., 2015. The Department of Defense cyber strategy. The US Department of Defense, Washington, DC.

Carter, A., 2015. The DOD cyber strategy. April, 17, p.2015.

Chen, T.M., 2013. An assessment of the department of defense strategy for operating in cyberspace. Army War College Carlisle Barracks Pa Strategic Studies Institute.

Christopher D. DeLuca, he Need for International Laws of War to Include Cyber Atacks Involving State and Non-State Actors, 3 Pace Intl L. Rev. Online Companion 278 (2013).

Gheorghe, A. V., Tatar, U., & Gokce, Y. (Eds.). (2017). Strategic Cyber Defense: A Multidisciplinary Perspective (Vol. 48). IOS Press.

Schmitt, Michael N., Computer Network Attack and the Use of Force in International Law: Thoughts on a Normative Framework (1999). Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, Vol. 37, 1998-99.

Schreier, F., 2015. On cyberwarfare. Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces.

Tabansky, L., 2011. Critical Infrastructure Protection against cyber threats. Military and Strategic Affairs, 3(2), p.2.

U.K. Government. National Cyber Security Strategy 2016-2021

International Strategy for Cyberspace: Prosperity, Security, and Openness in a Networked World (Washington, DC: The White House, May 2011)

Janczewski, L. J., & Caelli, W. (2016). Cyber Conflicts and Small States. Routledge.

Jansson Holmberg, E. (2015). Armed attacks in cyberspace: do they exist and can they trigger the right to self-defence?.

K. Saalbach, Cyber War; Methods and Practice. Version 6.0-2 January 2013;1-54.

Kolonel (AU) Rudy Gultom, 2015, Legitimasi Badan Cyber Nasional (BCN) Sebagai Pusat Komando Dan Kendali Kerjasama Antar Instansi Di Indonesia Guna Menghadapi Tantangan Cyberspace Dan Cybersecurity Dalam Rangka Melindungi Kepentingan Dan Ketahanan Nasional, National Cybersecurity Symposium.

Langevin, J.R., McCaul, M.T., Charney, S. and Raduege, H., 2008. Securing cyberspace for the 44th presidency. Center for Strategic And International Studies Washington DC.

Lindsay, J.R., 2013. Stuxnet and the limits of cyber warfare. Security Studies, 22(3), pp.365-404.

Lior Tabansky. Basic Concept in Cyberwarfare.Military and Strategic Affairs.Vol 3. No 1. May 2011. Pg 75-92.

Michael Holloway. Stuxnet Worm Attack on Iranian Nuclear Facilities.Submitted as coursework for PH241, Stanford University, Winter 2015

Muhammad Saleem & Jawad Hassan, cyber warfarethe truth the real case, Project Report for Information Security Course, Linking Universitetet, Sweden

Hathaway, O. A., Crootof, R., Levitz, P., Nix, H., Nowlan, A., Perdue, W., & Spiegel, J. (2012). The law of cyber-attack. California Law Review, 817-885.

Richardson, J., 2011. Stuxnet as cyberwarfare: applying the law of war to the virtual battlefield. J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L., 29, p.1.

Jason Porterfield, 2011.Careers as a Cyberterrorism Expert. The Rosen Publishing Group,

Jon Schiller, 2010. Cyber Attacks & Protection: Civilization Depends on Internet & Email, CreateSpace.

Walters, R., 2014. Cyber attacks on US companies in 2014. Heritage Foundation Issue Brief, 4289.

Dissertation

Kazinec, D., 2011. Issues of cyber warfare in international law (Doctoral dissertation, Mykolas Romeris University).

Setiyawan, A. 2018. Penguatan Kebijakan dan Kelembagaan National Cyber Defense dalam Menghadapi Ancaman Cyberwarfare di Indonesia (Doctoral dissertation, Sebelas Maret University).

Internet Sources :

Steve Morgan. 2017. 2017 Cybercrime Report. Https://cybersecurityventures.com/2015-wp/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/2017-Cybercrime-Report.pdf. Accessed 23 September 2018

Ponemon Institute. 2017. 2017 Cost of Cybercrime Study. Https://www.accenture.com/t20170926T072837Z__w__/us-en/_acnmedia/PDF-61/Accenture-2017-CostCyberCrimeStudy.pdf . Accessed 23 September 2018

Achmad Rouzni Noor. 2015. Kerugian Akibat Kejahatan Cyber Tembus USD 150 Miliar. Https://inet.detik.com/security/d-3081840/kerugian-akibat-kejahatan-cyber-tembus-usd-150-miliar. Accessed 23 September 2018

Fauzan Jamaludin. 2016. Ini jumlah kerugian finansial korban kejahatan cyber. Https://www.merdeka.com/teknologi/ini-jumlah-kerugian-finansial-korban-kejahatan-cyber.html. Accessed 23 September 2018

Alex Middleton. 2016. Stuxnet: The World's First Cyber... Boomerang?. Http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/articles/1343/stuxnet-the-worlds-first-cyber-boomerang. Accessed 23 September 2018

Nick Whigham. 2016. Alex Gibney film gives chilling insight into the world of state sponsored cyber warfare unleashed by Stuxnet. http://www.news.com.au/technology/online/security/alex-gibney-film-gives-chilling-insight-into-the-world-of-state-sponsored-cyber-warfare-unleashed-by-stuxnet/news-story/a7063ae03dcb5cd6ed2a576d6a8ea9dc, Accessed 23 September 2018

David Kushner. 2013. The Real Story of Stuxnet. Http://spectrum.ieee.org/telecom/security/the-real-story-of-stuxnet. Accessed 23 September 2018

Anon. 2010. Apa itu Stuxnet?. Http://www.antaranews.com/berita/222505/apa-itu-stuxnet. Accessed 23 September 2018

Anon. 2012. Virus Flame Diciptakan Untuk Serang Iran. Http://www.beritasatu.com/iptek/50900-virus-flame-diciptakan-untuk-serang-iran.html. Accessed 23 September 2018

Ellen Nakashima. 2014. U.S. attributes cyber attack on Sony to North Korea. Https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/us-attributes-sony-attack-to-north-korea/2014/12/19/fc3aec60-8790-11e4-a702-fa31ff4ae98e_story.html?utm_term=. Accessed 23 September 2018

Alec Russell. 2004. CIA plot led to huge blast in Siberian gas pipeline. Http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/northamerica/usa/1455559/CIA-plot-led-to-huge-blast-in-Siberian-gas-pipeline.html. Accessed 23 September 2018

U.S. Navy. N.d. computer attack. http://www.history.navy.mil/library/online/computerattack.htm Accessed 23 September 2018

HM Government. 2016. National Cybersecurity Strategy 2016-2021. Https://www.enisa.europa.eu/topics/national-cyber-security-strategies/ncss-map/national_cyber_security_strategy_2016.pdf. Accessed 23 September 2018

National Audit Office. 2014. Update on the National Cyber Security Programme. Https://www.nao.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/Update-on-the-National-Cyber-Security-Programme.pdf. Accessed 23 September 2018

National Audit Office. 2014. Short Guide to the Cabinet Office. Https://www.nao.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Short-Guide-to-the-Cabinet-Office.pdf. Accessed 23 September 2018

UK Government. 2013. New cyber reserve unit created. Https://www.gov.uk/government/news/reserves-head-up-new-cyber-unit. Accessed 23 September 2018

U.S. Government. 2016. Budget of the US Government. Https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/BUDGET-2017-BUD/pdf/BUDGET-2017-BUD.pdf. Accessed 23 September 2018

Elisabeth Rosenthal & David E. Sanger. 2001. U.S. Plane In China After It Collides With Chinese Jet. Http://www.nytimes.com/2001/04/02/world/us-plane-in-china-after-it-collides-with-chinese-jet.html?pagewanted=all. Accessed 23 September 2018

John Goetz and Marcel Rosenbach. 2009. 'Ghostnet' and the New World of Espionage. Http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/cyber-spies-ghostnet-and-the-new-world-of-espionage-a-618478.html, . Accessed 23 September 2018

Matt Loney. 2004. US software 'blew up Russian gas pipeline'. Http://www.zdnet.com/us-software-blew-up-russian-gas-pipeline-3039147917/. Accessed 23 September 2018

Ministry of Communication and Multimedia Malaysia. n.d. https://cnii.cybersecurity.my/main/about.html Accessed 23 September 2018

UK Government. N.d. Https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/joint-forces-command/about/recruitment Accessed 24 August 2018

Annon. 2010. War in the fifth domain. http://www.economist.com/node/16478792, Accessed 23 September 2018

Department of Homeland Security. N.d. https://www.dhs.gov/office-infrastructure-protection Accessed 24 September 2018

Michael B Kelley. 2013. The Stuxnet Attack On Iran's Nuclear Plant Was 'Far More Dangerous' Than Previously Thought. http://www.businessinsider.com/stuxnet-was-far-more-dangerous-than-previous-thought-2013-11?IR=T&r=US&IR=T. Accessed 23 September 2018

Anthony Wood. 2014. South Korea pushes for cyber weapon to undermine North Korean nuclear facilities. http://newatlas.com/south-korea-stuxnet-cyber-weapon/30977/ Accessed 23 September 2018

Kim Zetter. 2014. An Unprecedented Look at Stuxnet, the World's First Digital Weapon. https://www.wired.com/2014/11/countdown-to-zero-day-stuxnet/ Accessed 23 September 2018

Rachel Williams Global hackers threaten net security in cyber warfare aimed at top targets. http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2007/nov/29/hacking.news.Accessed 23 September 2018

Rachel William. 2007. Global hackers threaten net security in cyber warfare aimed at top targets. Http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2007/nov/29/hacking.news. Accessed 23 September 2018

Legislation:

Presidential DecreeNo 63 tahun 2004 Tentang Pengamanan Objek Vital Nasional

Obama, B., 2013. Presidential policy directive 21: Critical infrastructure security and resilience. Washington, DC.

EU Commission, 2008. COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 2008/114/EC of 8 December 2008 on the identification and designation of European critical infrastructures and the assessment of the need to improve their protection. Official Journal of the European Union.

Presidential Decission Directives/PPD-63 Year 1998

H.R.3162 - Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA PATRIOT ACT) Act of 2001




DOI: https://doi.org/10.25134/unifikasi.v6i2.1673

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


UNIFIKASI : Jurnal Ilmu Hukum

ISSN 2354-5976 (print), ISSN 2580-7382 (online)

Organized by Faculty of Law, Universitas Kuningan, Indonesia.

Website  : https://journal.uniku.ac.id/index.php/unifikasi/index

Email     : unifikasi@uniku.ac.id

Address : Jalan Cut Nyak Dhien No.36A Kuningan, Jawa Barat, Indonesia.

 UNIFIKASI is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0