Mahmood Hashemian


This study explores the (possible) relationship between affective variables and metaphorical competence. The main objective is to investigate the difference between the thinking/feeling and the judging/perceiving personality variables and L2 learners metaphorical competence. Participants are 90 male and female Iranian L2 learners who take the OPT and responded to the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality questionnaire. They are divided into 2 categories of thinking/feeling and judging/perceiving in line with the results of the MBTI. Then, a teacher-made metaphor test is administered to the groups to check their metaphorical competence. Finally, to observe whether there is any significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of metaphor comprehension, an independent samples t test is carried out. The metaphor test is the dependent variable and the personality type is the independent variable. Results show that the thinking/feeling personality category has no significant effect on the participants metaphorical competence, whereas the judging/perceiving personality category play some role in their metaphorical competence in that the perceiving participants outperformed the judging ones on the metaphor test.

Keywords: metaphorical competence; personality type; myers briggs type indicator (MBTI); thinking/feeling; judging/perceiving.

Full Text:



Azuma, M. (2005). Metaphorical competence in an EFL context: The mental lexicon and metaphorical competence of Japanese EFL students. Tokyo: Toshindo Publishing.

Balkis, M., & Isiker, G. B. (2005). The relationship between thinking styles and personality types. Social Behavior and Personality, 33(3), 283-294.

Binet, A. (1905). A propos la mesure de l intelligence. L AnneePsychol, 2, 411-465.

Brown, H. D. (2000). Principles of language learning and teaching (4th ed.). White Plains, New York: Addison Wesley Longman.

Caspi, A., Roberts, B. W., & Shiner, R. L. (2005). Personality development: Stability and change. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 453-484.

Collis, H. (2004). 136 American idioms. USA: NTC/Contemporary Publishing Group, INC.

Crookes, G., & Schmidt, R. (1991). Motivation: Reopening the research agenda. Language Learning, 40, 45-78.

Danesi, M. (1992). Metaphorical competence in second language acquisition and second language teaching: The neglected dimension. In J. E. Alatis (Eds.), Georgetown University round table on language and linguistics (pp. 489-500). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Danesi, M. (1994). Recent research on metaphor and the teaching of Italian. Italica, 71, 453-464.

Danesi, M. (1995). Learning and teaching languages: The role of conceptual fluency. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 5(1), 3-20.

Donglin, Q., & Yin, C. (2009). A data-based investigation into Chinese EFL learners metaphorical competence. Teaching English in ChinaCELEA Journal, 32(4), 96-103.

Erton, I. (2010). Relations between personality traits, language learning styles and success in foreign language achievement. H. U. Journal of Education, 38, 115-126.

Eysenck, H. J. (1997). Addiction, personality, and motivation. Journal of Human Pharmacology, 12, 79-87.

Eysenck, H. J., & Eysenck, S. B. G. (1964). Manual of the Eysenck personality inventory. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

Feldman, G., (2006). From molecules to metaphor: A neural theory of language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Flege, J. E., Yeni-Komshian, G. H., & Liu, S. (1999). Age constraints on second-language acquisition. Journal of Memory and Language, 41, 78-104.

Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.

Gardner, H., & Winner, E. (1978). The development of metaphoric competence: Implications for humanistic disciplines. Critical Inquiry, 5(1), 123-141.

Gibbs, R. (2006a). Embodiment and cognitive science. NY: Cambridge University Press.

Gibbs, R. (2006b). The psychological status of image schemas. In H. Beate (Eds.), From perception to meaning: Image schemas in cognitive linguistics (pp. 113-136). Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin.

Gibbs, R. (2006c). Metaphor interpretation as embodied simulation. Mind & Language, 21, 434-458.

Hakimi, S., Hejazi, E., & Lavasani, M. G. (2012). The relationship between personality traits and students academic achievement. Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, 836-845.

Halliday, M. A. k. (1985). An introduction to functional grammar. London: Edward Arnold.

Hashemian, M. (2007). Conceptual fluency and metaphorical competence in L2. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Isfahan, Iran.

Hashemian, M., & Talebinezhad, M. R. (2007). The development of conceptual fluency and metaphorical competence in L2 Learners. Linguistik Online, 27(1), 41-56.

Holland, J. L. (1973). Making vocational choices: A theory of careers. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Honey, P., & Mumford, A. (1992). The manual of learning style (3rd ed.). Maidenhead: Peter Honey.

Johnson, M. H. (1987). The body in the mind: The bodily basis of

meaning, imagination, and reason. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Kinnear, P. R., & Gray, C. D. (1999). SPSS for Windows made simple (3rd ed.). Hove, United Kingdom: Psychology Press Ltd.

Lakoff, G. (in press). The neural theory of metaphor. In R. Gibbs (Eds.), Cambridge handbook of metaphor and thought (pp. 17-38). NY: Cambridge University Press.

Lakoff, G. (1987). Women, fire, and dangerous things. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors we live by. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1999). Philosophy in the flesh. New York: Basic Books.

Lawrence, G. (1984). A synthesis of learning style research involving MBTI. Journal of Psychology, 8(2), 63-101.

Littlemore, J., & Low, G. (2006). Metaphoric competence, second language learning, and communicative language ability. Applied Linguistics, 27(2), 268-294.

Marefat, F. (2006). Student writing, personality type of the student and the rater: Any interrelationship? Reading Matrix, 6(2), 116-124.

McDonouch, J., & Shaw, C. (2003). Materials and methods in ELT (2nded.). UK: Blackwell Publishing.

Myers, I. B., & Myers, P. B. (1980). Gifts differing―Understanding personality type. Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black Publishing.

Nonaka, I. (1991). The knowledge-creating company. Harvard Business Review, 69(6), 96-104.

Ortony, A. (1975). Why metaphors are necessary and not just nice. Educational Theory, 25(1), 45-53.

Pittenger, D. J. (1993). Measuring the MBTI And coming up short. Journal of Career Planning & Placement, 54(1), 48-52.

Quenk, N. L. (1993). Beside ourselves―Our hidden personality in everyday life. Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black Publishing.

Racicot, M., Venne, D., Durivage, A., & Vaillancourt, J. P. (2011). Evaluation of the relationship between personality traits, experience, education, and biosecurity compliance on poultry farms in Quebec, Canada. Elsevier B. V., 10 (2&3), 1-7.

Reid, J. M. (1987). The learning style preferences of ESL students. TESOL Quarterly, 21(1), 87-110.

Sacristan, M. V. (2004). Metaphor and ESP: Metaphor as a useful device for teaching L2 business English learners. IBICA, 10, 115-131.

Smith, A. B., Irey, R. K., & McCaulley, M. H. (1973). Self-paced instruction and college student personalities. Engineering Education, 43(6), 435-440.

Taki, S. (2011). Cross-cultural communication and metaphorical competence. International Journal of Language Studies, 5(1), 47-62.

Teepen, J. (2005). On the relationship between aptitude and intelligence in second language acquisition. TESOL & Applied Linguistics, 4(3), 1-9.

Tendahl, M., & Gibbs, R. W., Jr. (2008). Complementary perspectives on metaphor: Cognitive linguistics and relevance theory. Journal of Pragmatics, 30, 1-42.

Tieger, P. D., & Barron-Tieger, B. (1995). Do what you Are―Discover the perfect career for you through the secrets of personality type (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Little, Brown and Company.

Tittle, M. (2000). Foreign language students irrational beliefs, language anxiety, and classroom achievement. In O. Kagan & B. Rifkin (Eds.), The learning and teaching of Slavic languages and cultures: Toward the 21stcentury (pp. 167-192). Bloomington, IN: Slavica.

Wilz, B. (2000). Relationship between personality type and grade point average of technical college students. Unpublished masters thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout, Menomonie, WI.

Wolk, C., & Nicoli, L. A. (1997). Personality types of accounting students and faculty: Comparisons and implications. Journal of Accounting Education, 15(1), 1-17.

Wright, J. (1999). Idioms organiser: Organized by metaphor, topic, and key word. UK: Thomson Heinle.

Yan, L. V. (2007). The development of metaphorical competence in EFL learners: A case study. Unpublished masters thesis, Donghua University, College of Foreign Languages.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.25134/ijli.v1i2.1487


  • There are currently no refbacks.