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Author Guidelines

(you can download the manuscript template here)


The journal accepts original research articles. An original research article presents original empirical or conceptual findings that have not been published anywhere before and have sufficient information to comprehend and benefit from the work. The articles may not contain persuasive arguments justifying policy recommendations or act as a decision-making tool for target audiences.


The manuscript must be written in good academic English. Single authors should not use the word “we”. Authors for whom English is not their native language are encouraged to have their paper checked for grammar and clarity before submission.


The article should be between 3,000 and 7,000 words. The allowable length of the manuscript is at the editor’s discretion; however, manuscripts that have a word count that is less than or exceeds the preferred number may be returned to the author(s) for revision before the manuscript is considered by the editors. The word count excludes tables, figures, and references.


The manuscripts should be typed in A4 (8.27" x 11.69"), 11-point Trebuchet font and space must be 1.15, except indented quotations. The manuscript should be in 2 columns format with the space of 1 cm between columns. The manuscript must be saved as a word file in format Word 97-2003. All pages, including tables, appendices, and references, should be serially numbered. The paragraph should be in justify alignment. Margin used is in 4-3-3-3 format, as 4 cm is for the left side and the rest is 3 cm. Refer to the IJBE template for the detailed format.


Authors must provide high-quality artwork for all illustrations.All tables and figures (graphs) should be included directly in the appropriate part of the article (not separated). Each table or figure should be numerically numbered separately (Table 1, Table, 2; Figure1, Figure 2) and fully titled, which refers to the contents of the table or figure. Underneath each table and figure, state the reliable source.


Equations should be numerically numbered consecutively in parentheses with aligning right margin, and it can use either the same font (Times New Roman) or the formula font.

Y=α+ßX+ε                                     (1)


The title of the article should be concise, informative and describe the article’s content. Write the title using simple and straightforward language that can offer the readers a glimpse of the content with their first glance. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible. The title should be in 15 words at most.


Provide the full name of each author, and the affiliations of each author at the time the research was completed. Where more than one author has contributed to the article, please provide detailed information on the corresponding author.


The abstract should stand alone, meaning that there is no citation in the abstract. The abstract should concisely inform the reader of the manuscript’s purpose, its research methods, its findings, and its contributions in 100-300 words. The abstract should be relatively nontechnical, yet clear enough for an informed reader to understand the manuscript’s contribution.


Keywords are an important part of abstract writing. Authors should select a maximum of five keywords that are specific and reflect what is essential about the article. Keywords and the article classification should be provided right after the abstract. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.


Authors should add 1- 3 JEL classification numbers. An information guide for the Journal of Economic Literature (JEL) can be found at


Manuscripts submitted to this journal should have the main headings:

1). Introduction;

2). Literature Review;

3). Method, Data, and Analysis;

4). Result and Discussion;

5). Conclusion;

6). Implication/Limitation and Suggestion;

7). Acknowledgment (if any) and

8). Reference.

Authors may use some flexible terms for the subheadings following the main heading. Authors are encouraged to use JIEB’s manuscript template.


What is the purpose of the study? Why are you conducting the study? The main section of the article should start with an introductory section which provides more details about the paper’s purpose, motivation, research methods and findings. The “introduction” in the manuscript is important to demonstrate the motives of the research. Explaining the problem’s formulation should cover the following points: (1) Problem recognition and its significance; (2) clear identification of the problem and the appropriate research questions; (3) coverage of problem’s complexity; and (4) well-defined objectives.


The second part, “Literature Review” investigates the gap that will be exposed and solved. The flow of all the ideas is required to be clear, linked, well-crafted and well developed. It serves as the source of the research’s question and especially the base or the hypotheses that respond to the research objective.


The third part of the manuscript, “Method, Data, and Analysis” is designed to describe the nature of the data. The method should be well elaborated by enhancing the model, the analysis approach and the steps taken. Equations should be numbered as we illustrate.

The research methodology should cover the following points: (1) A concise explanation of the research methodology is prevalent; (2) reasons to choose particular methods are well described; (3) research design is accurate; (4) the sample design is appropriate; (5) data collection processes are proper; and (6) data analysis methods are relevant and state-of-the-art.


The author needs to report the results in sufficient detail so that the reader can see which statistical analysis was conducted and why, and later to justify the conclusions.


In this section, the author presents brief conclusions from the results of the research with suggestions for advanced researchers or general readers. A conclusion may cover the main points of the paper. Authors should explain the empirical and theoretical benefits, the economic benefits, and the existence of new findings.


The author must present any major flaws and limitations of the study, which could reduce the validity of the writing, thus raising questions from the readers (whether, or in what way), the limits in the study may have affected the results and conclusions. Limitations require a critical judgment and interpretation of the impact of their research. The author should provide the answer to the question: Is this a problem caused by an error, or in the method selected, or the validity, or something else?


Author (s) may acknowledge a person or organization that helped him/her/them in many ways. Please use the singular heading even if you have many acknowledgments.


In this section, the author (s) must list all the reference documents cited in the text. In writing the reference, the author(s) are recommended to use reference management tools, such as Mendeley.  The citation and reference list should follow the American Psychological Association (APA) referencing style (6th edition). Otherwise, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this guide.  

Authors are encouraged to cite manuscripts mainly from primary source publications (journals) from the last ten years. In addition, authors should avoid excessively referencing their own work (self-citation).

A basic format to list the reference documents as follows:

  1. The reference list is arranged in alphabetical order by the authors’ last names
  2. If there is more than one work by the same author, order them by publication date, oldest to newest.
  3. If there is no author the title moves to that position and the entry is alphabetized by the first significant word, excluding words such as “A” or “The”. If the title is long, it may be shortened when citing in the text.
  4. The first line of the reference list entry is left-hand justified, while all subsequent lines are consistently indented.
  5. Use “&” instead of “and” when listing multiple authors of a source.
  6. Capitalize only the first word of the title and of the subtitle, if there is one, plus any proper names – i. e. only those words that would normally be capitalized.
  7. Italicize the title of the book, the title of the journal/serial and the title of the web document.
  8. For any non-English articles, please write down the translation of the article in brackets [ ] after the original article’s title. Note that the original article should be written in italics.
  9. Do not create separate lists for each type of information source.


Some example of the reference list


Karlan, D. S., & Zinman, J. (2012). List randomization for sensitive behavior: An application for measuring use of loan proceeds. Journal of Development Economics98(1), 71-75.

Gabbett, T., Jenkins, D., & Abernethy, B. (2010). Physical collisions and injury during professional rugby league skills training. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 13(6), 578-583. doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2010.03.007

Conference Paper/Proceeding

Williams, J., & Seary, K. (2010). Bridging the divide: Scaffolding the learning experiences of the mature age student. In J. Terrell (Ed.), Making the links: Learning, teaching and high-quality student outcomes. Proceedings of the 9th Conference of the New Zealand Association of Bridging Educators (pp. 104-116). Wellington, New Zealand.

MacColl, F., Ker, I., Huband, A., Veith, G., & Taylor, J. (2009, November 12-13). Minimising pedestrian-cyclist conflict on paths. Paper presented at the Seventh New Zealand Cycling Conference, New Plymouth, New Zealand. Retrieved from                       PedCycleConflicts.pdf


Mann, D. L. (2010). Vision and expertise for interceptive actions in sport (Doctoral dissertation, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia). Retrieved from


Collier, A. (2008). The world of tourism and travel. Rosedale, New Zealand: Pearson Education New Zealand.

Airey, D. (2010). Logo design love: A guide to creating iconic brand identities. Berkeley, CA: New Riders.

Whitney, E., & Rolfes, S. (2011). Understanding nutrition (12th ed.). Australia: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Book Chapter

Palmer, F. (2007). Treaty principles and Maori sport: Contemporary issues. In C. Collins & S. Jackson (Eds.), Sport in Aotearoa/New Zealand society (2nd ed., pp. 307-334). South Melbourne, Australia: Thomson.


Matthews, L. (2011, November 23). Foodbanks urge public to give generously. Manawatu Standard, p. 4.

Little blue penguins homeward bound. (2011, November 23). Manawatu Standard, p. 5.

Rogers, C. (2011, November 26). Smartphone could replace wallets. The Dominion Post. Retrieved from

Act (statute/legislation)

Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992. (2013, December 16). Retrieved from


Ministry of Health. (2014). Ebola: Information for the public. Retrieved from




Even though you have reproduced someone’s idea in your own words (i.e. paraphrase), you still need to cite where the original information or idea came from.

When citing in the text within your manuscript, the general guideline is to use the author’s last name, with comma,  followed by the year of publication in a parenthe­sis; for example, (Handoyo, 2015); with two authors: (Handoyo & Smith, 2014); two manuscript by one author: (Handoyo, 1992, 2015).

To avoid ambiguity, do not use “P”,”pp”, or “page” before the page number but use a colon (:) for example: (Andoyo, 1991: 121).

If there is more than one reference written by the same author and in the same issue, use suffix a, b, and so forth after the year in a citation; example: (Andoyo, 1991a) or (Andoyo, 1991a; Hutabarat 1992b).

If a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all the authors the first time and from then on include only the last name of the first author followed by the words et al. (‘et al.’ is Latin for ‘and others’); example: First time cited (MacColl, Ker, Huband, Veith & Taylor, 2009). Second and subsequent citations: (MacColl et al., 2009). 

A quotation that refers to institutional work should use either an acronym or abbreviation; exam­ple: (Komite SAK-IAI, PSAK28, 1997); (WHO, 2010).


Authors should avoid direct quotations in their manuscripts to avoid plagiarism. Quoting directly from a work should only be done in order to emphasize or stress a point in your text.

When using a quote, it must be copied exactly as written in the original work including any punctuation or incorrect spelling. A direct quote of fewer than 40 words is displayed in quotation marks, whereas, the quotations with more than 40 words are displayed as block quotations. When using a quote, include the author’s last name, the year of publication and page number/s where the quotation appears.

Footnote, Footnotes cannot be used as references. They should only be used for broad information that may distract the reading continuity if included in the text. Footnotes should be typed single-spaced and numerically numbered with an Arabic superscript numeric and should be placed at the end of the text.


Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).

    Download the required administrative document here. The document includes originality declaration and author's information. Please send the completed administrative document to or upload it along with your supporting document (if any).

  2. The submission file is in Microsoft Word (97-2003 document). Download the template here.
  3. Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  4. The text is 1,15-spaced; uses an 11-point Trebuchet font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  5. The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
  6. If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.

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