THE PRACTICE AND CHALLENGES OF IMPLEMENTING CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS IN EFL TEACHERS QUESTIONING BEHAVIOR

Ahmad Zainudin, Machdalena Vianty, Rita Inderawati

Abstract


The development of critical thinking is closely related to the questions asked by teachers as the teachers higher-order questions are cognitively demanding to promote students critical thinking. The purposes of this study are to investigate how critical thinking was implemented in EFL teachers questions in the classroom and the challenges faced by EFL teachers in integrating critical thinking questions. In addition, this study also investigated students reasons for non-response to particular questions asked by teachers. Applying mixed-method research design, the data were collected from classroom observation, interview, questionnaire and documentations. The research participants were two English teachers and 229 number of students of year 8. The results showed that the most dominant questions asked by the two English teachers were in Lower-order questions (78,8%), while the Higher-order questions were only (21,2%) questions. Second, the challenges faced by teachers were students intelligence has yet to reach the level of higher-order thinking, unconducive-classroom environment, teachers creativity itself, parental involvement and students lack of vocabulary. Third, dealing with the reason for students non-response in particular questions asked by teachers, there were some reasons, such as students are afraid of making mistakes, they could not put ideas into words, and lack of vocabularies. In conclusion, the teachers faced various challenges in implementing critical thinking questions in the classroom.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Arjulayana, & Srikandi, C. N. (2019). Early semester student needs in English mastery to support teaching and learning process in English department. The Asian EFL Journal, 24(4.1), 78-97.

BAN S/M. (2017). Perangkat akreditasi SMP/MTS. Jakarta: Indonesia Ministry of Education.

Bloom, B. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. New York, United States: Longman, Green and Co ltd.

EF. (2017). Indeks kecakapan bahasa Inggris EF. Retrieved from https://www.ef.co.id/epi/regions/asia/indonesia/.

Indonesia Ministry of Education. (2010). Peraturan pemerintah Republik Indonesia nomor 17 tahun 2010 tentang pengelolaan dan penyelenggaran pendidikan. Jakarta: Indonesia Ministry of Education.

Indonesia Ministry of Education. (2013). Peraturan menteri pendidikan dan kebudayaan Republik Indonesia nomor 81 a tahun 2013 tentang implementasi kurikulum. Jakarta, Indonesia: Indonesia Ministry of Education.

Indonesia Ministry of Education. (2015). 7 provinsi raih nilai terbaik uji kompetensi guru 2015. Retrieved from https://www.kemdikbud.go.id/main/blog/2016/01/7-provinsi-raih-nilai-terbaik-uji-kompetensi-guru-2015.

Indonesia Ministry of Education. (2016). Peraturan menteri pendidikan dan kebudayaan nomor 22 tahun 2016 tentang standar proses pendidikan dasar dan menengah. Jakarta: Indonesia Ministry of Education.

Katemba, C. V., & Marie, A. R. (2016). Analysis of teachers questioning and students critical thinking in English classroom. Journal of International Scholars Conference, 1(2), 23-33.

Khan, W. B., & Inamullah, H. M. (2011). A study of lower-order and higher-order questions at secondary level. Asian Social Science, 7(9), 149-157.

Kwatubana, S., & Makhalemele, T. (2015). Parental involvement in the process of implementation of the national school nutrition programme in public schools. International Journal of Educational Sciences, 9(3), 315-323.

Matra, S. D. (2014). Teacher questioning in classroom interaction. A Journal of Culture: English Language Teaching & Literature, 14(1), 83-111.

Marzano, R. (2003). What works in schools: Translating research into action. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

National Education Association. (2012). Preparing 21st century students for a global society: An educators guide to the Four Cs. Washington, DC: National Education Association

Natthanan, D. (2009). Teachers questioning techniques and students critical thinking skills: English language classroom. Doctoral thesis, Oklahoma State University, The United States.

Purnawarman, P., Ratnaningsih, S., & Gunawan, M. H. (2017). Scientific approach of 2013 curriculum: Teachers implementation in English language teaching. Journal of English Education, 6(1), 33-40.

Rahmi, R. A., & Diem, C. D. (2014). Junior high school students perception of classroom environment and their English achievement. International Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature, 3(3), 41-47.

Renandya, W. A. (2013). Essential factors affecting EFL learning outcomes. English Teaching, 68(4), 23-41.

Richards, J. C., & Schmidt, R. (2010). Longman dictionary of language teaching & applied linguistics. London: Pearson Education Limited.

Sano, M. (2014). Critical thinking skills and teachers questioning behavior in a Japanese University EFL context. Master thesis, The University of Soka, Japan.

Sholikhati, R., Mardiyana., & Saputro, D. R. S. (2017). Students thinking level based on intrapersonal intelligence. Journal of Physics, 943, 1-7. doi :10.1088/1742-6596/943/1/012007.

Slameto. (2003). Belajar dan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhinya. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.

UNESCO. (2015). Global citizenship education: Topics and learning objectives. Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization.

Wilen, W. W. (1991). Questioning skills, for teachers: What research says to the teachers. Washington, DC: National Education Association.

Wilen, W. W. (2001). Exploring myths about teacher questioning in the social studies classroom. The Social Studies, 92(1), 26-32. doi: 10.1080/00377990109603972.

Yuliawati, Y., Mahmud, M. & Muliati, A. (2016). Teachers questioning and students critical thinking in EFL classroom interaction. ELT Worlwide, 3(2), 232-246.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.25134/erjee.v8i1.2112

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 English Review: Journal of English Education