Mark J. Oliver


This study examined ten EFL learners’ noticing of the corrective nature of a form of text-based SCMC (text chat) feedback that combined a recast of a grammatical error with metalinguistic information. The feedback, termed a hybrid recast, was provided by a native-speaker interlocutor during two text chat activities: a spot-the-difference and picture-ordering task. Data was collected in two ways: analysis of task-based dyadic text chat interaction in which uptake was used as an indicator of learner noticing, and a post-task questionnaire containing questions that identified evidence of learner noticing. Interaction analysis showed that learners responded to almost two thirds of the hybrid recasts with uptake. In addition, every learner provided evidence that they had correctly perceived at least some of the hybrid recasts as corrective in their post-task questionnaire responses.

Keywords: Text chat (text-based SCMC - synchronous computed-mediated communication), Corrective feedback, Negative evidence, Recasts, Hybrid recasts, Metalinguistic correction, Uptake, Repair, Noticing

Full Text:



Bao, M., Egi, T & Han, Y (2011). Classroom study on noticing and recast features: Capturing learner noticing with uptake and stimulated recall. System, 39, 215-228

Doughty, C., & Long, M, (2003). Optimal psycholinguistic environments for distance foreign language learning. Language Learning and Technology, 7(3), 50-80

Doughty, C., & V, E. (1998). Communicative focus on form. In C. Doughty &J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition, (114-138). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Egi, T, (2007). Recasts, learner’s interpretations, and L2 development. In Mackey, A. (Ed.) (2007). Conversational interaction in second language acquisition, 249-268. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Egi, T, (2010). Uptake, Modified Output, and Learner Perceptions of Recasts: Learner Responses as Language Awareness. The Modern Language Journal, 94, 1-21.

Ellis, R, (2003). Task based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ellis, R., Basturkmen, H., & Loewen, S. (2001). Learner Uptake in Communicative ESL Lessons. Language Learning, 51(2), 281–318.

Ellis, R., & Sheen, Y. (2006). Re-examining the role of recasts in second language acquisition. Studies in second language acquisition, 28(4), 575-600. Cambridge University Press.

Kung, S, (2004). Synchronous electronic discussions in EFL reading class. ELT Journal, 58(2), 164-173.

Lai, C., & Zhao, Y. (2006). Noticing and text-based chat. Language Learning and Technology, 10(3), 102-120.

Loewen, S., & Philip, J. (2006). Recasts in the adult L2 classroom: characteristics, explicitness and effectiveness. The Modern Language Journal, 90(4), 536-556.

Long, M. (1996). The role of the linguistic environment in second language acquisition. In Ritchie, W.R, & Bhatia, T.J., (Eds.) Handbook of Second Language Acquisition. Academic Press, 413-68.

Long, M., Inagaki, S., & Ortega, L. (1998). The role of implicit negative feedback in SLA: Models and recasts in Japanese and Spanish. The Modern Language Journal, 82, 357-371.

Lyster, R. (1998). Negotiation of form, recasts, and explicit correction in relation to error types and learner repair in immersion classrooms. Language Learning, 48(2), 183-218.

Lyster, R., & Ranta, L. (1997). Corrective feedback and learner uptake, negotiation of form in communicative classrooms. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 20, 36-66.

Lyster, R., & Mori, H. (2006). Interactional feedback and instructional counterbalance. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 28, 269-300, Cambridge University Press.

Mackey, A., Gass, S., & Mcdonough, K. (2000). How do learners perceive feedback? Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 22, 471-497. Cambridge University Press.

Nicholas, H., Lightbrown, P., & Spada, N. (2001). Recasts as feedback to language learners. Language Learning, 51, 719-758.

Oliver, R. (1995). Negative feedback in child NS-NNS conversation. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 17, 459-481. Cambridge University Press.

Pellettieri, J. (2000). Negotiation in cyberspace: The role of chatting in the development of grammatical competence. In Warschauer, M., & Kern. R. (2000). Network-based Language Teaching: Concepts and Practice, (59-86), 3rd Printing., Cambridge University Press.

Sachs, R., & Suh, B. (2007). Textually enhanced recasts, learner awareness, and L2 outcomes in synchronous computer-mediated interaction. In Mackey, A. (2007). Conversational interaction in second language acquisition, (197-228), Oxford University Press.

Sauro, S. (2009). Computer-mediated corrective feedback and the development of L2 grammar. Language Learning and Technology, 13(1), 96-120.

Schmidt, R. (1990). The role of consciousness in second language learning. Applied linguistics, 11,129-58.

Schmidt, R., & Frota, S. (1986). Developing basic conversational ability in a second language: a case study of an adult learner of Portuguese. In Day (Ed.).

Sheen, Y. (2006). Exploring the relationship between characteristics of recasts and learner uptake, Language Teaching Research, 10(4), 361-392.

Sheen, Y. (2007). Corrective feedback, individual differences, and acquisition of articles. In Mackey, A. (2007). Conversational interaction in second language acquisition, (229-248). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Simpson, J. (2002). Computer-mediated communication. ELT Journal, 56(4), 414-415. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Smith, B. (2004). Computer-mediated negotiated interaction and lexical acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26, 365-398. Cambridge University Press.

Smith, B. (2005). The relationship between negotiated interaction, learner uptake, and lexical acquisition in task-based computer-mediated communication. TESOL Quarterly, 39(1), 33-58.

Smith, B., & Sauro, S. (2009). Interruptions in chat. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 22(3), 229-247.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 English Review: Journal of English Education