Yusi Asnidar, M. Syarif Sumantri, Ninuk Lustyantie


This research aims to gain an in-depth understanding of the form and modulation of metaphor translation from French to Indonesian, its use in the communicative context of speech events. Furthermore, this study also looks at the relevance of the results of the translation of the form and modulation with mediation, plurilingual and pluricultural competences in the CEFR European standard language proficiency. The data sources used are the Novel Vingt-Milles Lieues Sous Les Mers by Jules Verne and its translated novel 20.000 Mil di bawah Laut by NH Dini. The data in this study is a metaphor in a broad sense. The most dominant form of metaphor translation used is reproduction. Next, there are substitutions and paraphrases. The combined form of reproduction+paraphrasing is found in the VLM metaphor translation. Equivalence of meaning is obtained by using explicit and implicit modulation, special and general meanings, and point of view. The context of speech events contributes to producing an equivalent and natural translation. The results of this translation indicate that translation activities are complex language activities and require precision and accuracy. Translating literary works requires cultural mastery and an advanced level of linguistic mastery. The competencies are described in the Petra Project terms of reference contained in the CEFR 2020 and CECRL 2018 terms of reference. Translating skills require guided practice acquired through a well-oriented education. The ability to understand metaphors and other cultures and be able to compare them by providing analogies in the local culture is a plurilingual and pluricultural competence.


metaphor; forms of metaphor translation; modulation; mediation competence; plurilingual and pluricultural competence.

Full Text:



Aprouz, H., & Mohammadi, R. R. (2022). Translation quality assessment of metaphors in Omar Khayyam’s quatrains: Conceptual metaphor in focus. Journal of Language and Translation, 12(2), 59-71.

Beacco, Jean-Claude, Byram, M., Cavalli, M., Coste, D., Cuenat, M. E., Goullier, F., and Panthier, J. (2016). Guide for the Development and Implementation of Curricula for Plurilingual and Intercultural Education. Brussels: Council of Europe.

Canagarajah, S. (Ed.). (2013). Literacy as Translingual Practice: Between Communities and Classrooms. Routledge.

Chabert, A. (2018). Developing plurilingual competences in primary education. Fòrum de Recerca, 23, 563-574.

Chen, L., Karas, M., Shalizar, M., & Piccardo, E. (2022). From “promising controversies” to negotiated practices: A research synthesis of plurilingual pedagogy in global contexts. TESL Canada Journal, 38(2), 1-35.

Council of Europe. (2018). Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment Companion Volume with New Descriptors. Brussels: Language Policy Programme.

Council of Europe. (2020). Common European framework of reference for languages: Learning, teaching, assessment – Companion volume. Council of Europe Publishing, Strasbourg.

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Research Design Pendekatan Kualitatif, Kuantitatif, dan Mixed. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Dubois, J. et al. (2002). Dictionnaire de Linguistique Paris: Larousse.

Durjava, I. (2012). Modulation as Variation in Target–Language Translation Equivalence: The Case of English and Slovene. ELOPE: English Language Overseas Perspectives and Enquiries, 9(2), 7–22.

Fani, A. (2021). The allure of untranslatability: Shafiʿi-Kadkani and (not) translating Persian poetry. Iranian Studies, 54(1-2), 95-125.

Galante, A. (2019). “The moment I realized I am plurilingual”: Plurilingual tasks for creative representations in EAP at a Canadian university. Applied Linguistics Review, 11(4), 551–580.

Galante, A. (2021). Affordances of plurilingual instruction in higher education: A mixed methods study with a quasi-experiment in an English language program. Applied Linguistics.

Galante, A. and Dela Cruz, J. W. N. (2021). ‘Plurilingual and pluricultural as the new normal: An examination of language and identity in the multilingual city of Montre´ al,’ Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development https://doi. org/ 10. 1080/ 01434632. 2021. 1931244

González-Davies, M. (2019). Developing mediation competence through translation. In Laviosa, S., & González-Davies, M. (Ed.). The Routledge Handbook of Translation and Education Routledge.

Hartono. (2011). Analisis Data Statistika dan Peneltian. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Hastürkoğlu, G. (2018). Incorporation of conceptual metaphor theory in translation pedagogy: a case study on translating similie-based idioms. Australian Journal of Linguistics, 38(4), 467-483.

Hatim, B., & Munday, J. (2004). Translation: An Advanced Resource Book. London: Routledge

Hoed, B. H. (2006). Penerjemahan dan Kebudayaan. Jakarta: Grmedia Pustaka Utama

Hong, W., & Rossi, C. (2021). The cognitive turn in metaphor translation studies: A critical overview. Journal of Translation Studies 5(2), 83–115

Katan, D. (2013). Cultural mediation. In Y. Gambier & L. Van Doorslaer (Eds.), Handbook of Translation Studies. Amsterdam & Philadelphia John Benjamins.

Kripendorff, K. (2004). Content Analysis an Introduction to Its Methodology,2nd Edition. London: Sage Publication.

Lakoff, G. & Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphor We Live By. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press

Liddicoat, A. J. (2016). Translation as intercultural mediation: setting the scene. Perspectives Studies in Translatology.

Lin, A. M. (2013). Toward paradigmatic change in TESOL methodologies: Building plurilingual pedagogies from the ground up. TESOL Quarterly, 47(3), 521–545.

Lustyantie, N. (2012). Pendekatan Semiotik Model Roland Barthes. (

Machali, R. (2000). Pedoman Bagi Penerjemah. Jakarta: Grasindo.

Miles, M. B., and Huberman, A. M. (2014). Qualitative Data Analysis: A Method Sourcebook. Sage: London.

Newmark, P. (1988). A Textbook of Translation. London: Prentice Hall.

Nida, E. A. & Taber, C. R. (1969). The Theory and Practice of Translation. Leiden: E.J. Brill.

Olynyk, T. (2014). Metaphor Translation Methods. International Journal of Applied and Technology. Vol 4 No. 1 : January 2014.

Piccardo, E., Antony-Newman, M., Chen, L., & Banafsheh K. (2021). Innovative features of a plurilingual approach in language teaching: Implications from the LINCDIRE project. Critical Multilingualism Studies, 9(1), 128–155. ISSN 2325–2871.

Putranti, A. (2018). Modulation: A translation method to obtain naturalness in target language texts. Journal of Language and Literature, 18(1), 98-101.

Snell-Hornby, M. (2006). The Turns of Translation Studies. Amsterdam: John Benjamin Publishing Company

Verne, J. (1966). Vingt-mille lieues Sous Les Mers of Jules Verne. Paris: Librairie Hachette

Verne, J. (2004). 20.000 Mil di Bawah Lautan. Terjemahan dari Vingt-mille Lieues Sous Les Mers oleh Nh. Dini. Yogyakarta: Enigma Publishing

Vinay, J.P & Darbelnet, J. (1958). Stylistique Comparée du Francais et de l’Anglais. Paris: Didier.

Wiersma, W. (1986). Research Methods in Education: An Introduction. Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon, Inc.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 English Review: Journal of English Education