Mardin Silalahi, Geby Arni Siregar, Lamhot Naibaho


Abstract: This research is aimed at analyzing the integration of the cooperative learning model into English language learning, which was done at fostered elementary school of Simalungun University. The method of the study used was a quasi-experimental research method with a post-test-only control group design. The population of this study was all elementary school learners assisted by Simalungun University in Siantar City, with as many as 232 people. The research sample chosen was 70 learners, determined by using random sampling. The researcher used a lottery system to appoint the experimental and control classes. Based on the lottery system that was carried out, it was found that class IV of school X served as the experimental group and class IV Class Y as the control group. The instrument of the research was two sets of previously validated questionnaires. The data technique analysis used was statistical analysis. The result of the study is that the motivation and learning outcomes of learners following the NHT cooperative learning model were higher than learners following the conventional learning model. It is concluded that NHT cooperative learning model has a positive effect on increasing achievement motivation and English learning outcomes for learners of class IV at Y and X Schools both separately and simultaneously.

Keywords: Cooperative learning; learning english; number head together


Cooperative learning; learning english; number head together

Full Text:



Alper, B., Riche, N. H., Chevalier, F., Boy, J., & Sezgin, M. (2017, May). Visualization literacy at elementary school. In Proceedings of the 2017 CHI conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 5485-5497).

Access, J. (2000). The reciprocal influence of teacher learning, teaching practice, school restructuring, and student learning outcomes. Teachers College Record, 102(3), 590-619.

Andreev, V. V., Gorbunov, V. I., Evdokimova, O. K., & Rimondi, G. (2020). A transdisciplinary approach to improving study motivation among university students of engineering specialties. Education and Self Development, 15(1), 21-37.

Ashaver, D., & Igyuve, S. M. (2013). The use of audio-visual materials in the teaching and learning processes in colleges of education in Benue State-Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Research & Method in Education, 1(6), 44-55.

Baggini, J., & Fosl, P. S. (2020). The philosopher's toolkit: a compendium of philosophical concepts and methods. John Wiley & Sons.

Biggs, J. B., & Collis, K. F. (2014). Evaluating the quality of learning: The SOLO taxonomy (Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome). Academic Press.

Brunstein, J. C., & Heckhausen, H. (2018). Achievement motivation. Motivation and action, 221-304.

Burri, M., & Baker, A. (2021). 'I Feel… Slightly out of Touch': a Longitudinal Study of Teachers Learning to Teach English Pronunciation over Six years. Applied linguistics, 42(4), 791–809.

Cameron, C. D., Hutcherson, C. A., Ferguson, A. M., Scheffer, J. A., Hadjiandreou, E., & Inzlicht, M. (2019). Empathy is hard work: People avoid empathy because of its cognitive costs. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 148(6), 962.

Connell, G. L., Donovan, D. A., & Chambers, T. G. (2016). Increasing student-centered pedagogies from moderate to high improves student learning and attitudes about biology. CBE—Life Sciences Education, 15(1), ar3.

Danckert, J., & Eastwood, J. D. (2020). Out of my skull: The psychology of boredom. Harvard University Press.

Dörnyei, Z., & Muir, C. (2019). Creating a motivating classroom environment. Second handbook of English language teaching, 719-736.

Enneking, K. M., Breitenstein, G. R., Coleman, A. F., Reeves, J. H., Wang, Y., & Grove, N. P. (2019). The evaluation of a hybrid, general chemistry laboratory curriculum: Impact on students’ cognitive, affective, and psychomotor learning. Journal of Chemical Education, 96(6), 1058–1067.

Fenanlampir, A., Leasa, M., & Batlolona, J. R. (2021). The Development of Homogeneity Psycho Cognition Learning Strategy in Physical Education Learning. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, 10(3), 1047-1059.

Girsang, M. (2021). The Application Of The NHT Type Cooperative Learning Model To Improve Biology Learning Outcomes In Class XI SMA Negeri 10 Medan. Jurnal Pelita Pendidikan, 9(2).

Guan, Q., & Meng, W. (2007). China's new national curriculum reform: Innovation, challenges, and strategies. Frontiers of education in China, 2, 579-604.

Gultom, S., Hutauruk, A. F., & Ginting, A. M. (2020). Teaching skills of teachers in increasing student learning interest. Budapest International Research and Critics Institute (BIRCI-Journal): Humanities and Social Sciences, 3(3), 1564-1569.

Hallinger, P., & Heck, R. H. (2010). Collaborative leadership and school improvement: Understanding the impact on school capacity and student learning. School leadership and management, 30(2), 95-110.

Henningsen-Schomers, M. R., & Pulvermüller, F. (2021). Modeling concrete and abstract concepts using brain-constrained deep neural networks. Psychological research, 1-27.

Iglesias-Pradas, S., Hernández-García, Á., Chaparro-Peláez, J., & Prieto, J. L. (2021). Emergency remote teaching and students’ academic performance in higher education during the COVID-19 pandemic: A case study. Computers in human behavior, 119, 106713.

Isa, Z. C., & Azid, N. (2021). Embracing TVET Education: The Effectiveness of Project Based Learning on Secondary School Students' Achievement. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, 10(3), 1072-1079.

Jampel, I. N., Fahrurrozi, F., Artawan, G., Widiana, I. W., Parmiti, D. P., & Hellman, J. (2018). Studying natural science in elementary school using NOS-oriented cooperative learning model with the NHT type. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 7(2), 138-146.

Joubish, M. F., & Khurram, M. A. (2011). Cognitive development in Jean Piaget’s work and its implications for teachers. World Applied Sciences Journal, 12(8), 1260–1265.

Kamińska, D., Sapiński, T., Wiak, S., Tikk, T., Haamer, R. E., Avots, E., ... & Anbarjafari, G. (2019). Virtual reality and its applications in education: Survey. Information, 10(10), 318.

Kaplan, A., & Haenlein, M. (2020). Rulers of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of artificial intelligence. Business Horizons, 63(1), 37-50.

Kennedy, D. (2006). Writing and using learning outcomes: a practical guide. University College Cork.

Kruszewska, A., Nazaruk, S., & Szewczyk, K. (2022). Polish teachers of early education in the face of distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic–the difficulties experienced and suggestions for the future. Education 3-13, 50(3), 304-315.

Leasa, M., & Corebima, A. D. (2017). The effect of numbered heads together (NHT) cooperative learning model on the cognitive achievement of students with different academic abilities. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 795, No. 1, p. 012071). IOP Publishing.

Leasa, M., & Corebima, A. D. (2017). The effect of numbered heads together (NHT) cooperative learning model on the cognitive achievement of students with different academic abilities. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 795, No. 1, p. 012071). IOP Publishing.

Leasa, M., Talakua, M., & Batlolona, J. R. (2016). The development of a thematic module based on Numbered Heads Together (NHT) cooperative learning model for elementary students in Ambon, Moluccas-Indonesia. The New Educational Review, 46, 174-185.

Li, M. P., & Lam, B. H. (2013). Cooperative learning. The Hong Kong Institute of Education, 1, 33.

Liaw, M. L. (2007). Content-based reading and writing for critical thinking skills in an EFL context. English Teaching and learning, 31(2), 45–87.

Maimaiti, G., Jia, C., & Hew, K. F. (2021). Student disengagement in web-based videoconferencing supported online learning: an activity theory perspective. Interactive Learning Environments, 1-20.

Mosquera Feijóo, J. C., Suárez, F., Chiyón, I., & Alberti, M. G. (2021). Some web-based experiences from flipped classroom techniques in aec modules during the covid-19 lockdown. Education Sciences, 11(5), 211.

Nadeak, B., Naibaho, L., Sunarto, S., Tyas, E. H., & Sormin, E. (2021). Learning management in suburban schools during the midst of COVID-19. Psychology and Education Journal, 58(2), 1131-1139.

Naibaho, L. (2022). Factors Affecting Students' Failures Due to Anxiety in Learning English. English Review: Journal of English Education, 10(3), 911–918.

Naibaho, L. (2022). The analysis of students' reading and writing difficulties in learning English at universitas Kristen Indonesia. Jurnal Konseling dan Pendidikan, 10(1), 157-166.

Naibaho, L. (2022). The integration of mind mapping strategy on students' essay writing at universities Kristen Indonesia. JPPI (Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan Indonesia), 8(2), 320-328.

Ning, H., & Hornby, G. (2014). The impact of cooperative learning on tertiary EFL learners’ motivation. Educational Review, 66(1), 108-124.

O'Connor, D. B., Aggleton, J. P., Chakrabarti, B., Cooper, C. L., Creswell, C., Dunsmuir, S., ... & Armitage, C. J. (2020). Research priorities for the COVID‐19 pandemic and beyond: A call to action for psychological science. British Journal of Psychology, 111(4), 603–629.

Odinokaya, M., Krepkaia, T., Sheredekina, O., & Bernavskaya, M. (2019). The culture of professional self-realization is a fundamental factor of students’ internet communication in the modern educational environment of higher education. Education Sciences, 9(3), 187.

Pohan, R. S. D., & Agusti, R. (2022, December). Learning to Write Biography Texts Using the Cooperative Model of Number Head Together (NHT). In 3rd International Conference on Educational Science and Teacher Profession (ICETeP, 2021) (pp. 175-187). Atlantis Press.

Rao, N. J. (2020). Outcome-based education: An outline. Higher Education for the Future, 7(1), 5–21.

Rollins, S. P. (2020). Teaching Vulnerable Learners: Strategies for Students who are Bored, Distracted, Discouraged, or Likely to Drop Out. WW Norton & Company.

Siahaan, M. M. L., & Napitupulu, E. E. (2018). The Difference of Students' Mathematical Communication Ability Taught by Cooperative Learning Model Think Talks Write Type and Numbered Head Together Type. Scholaria: Jurnal Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, 8(3), 231-242.

Sinambela, C., Sirait, S. H. K. N., Nasir, I. R. F., & Damopolii, I. (2021, June). Enhancing student achievement using the fungi learning media supported by Numbered Head Together learning. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1918, No. 5, p. 052053). IOP Publishing.

Ten Eyck, R. P., Tews, M., & Ballester, J. M. (2009). Improved medical student satisfaction and test performance with a simulation-based emergency medicine curriculum: a randomized controlled trial. Annals of emergency medicine, 54(5), 684-691.

Tuaputty, H., Leasa, M., Corebima, A. D., & Batlolona, J. R. (2021). The Correlation between Critical Thinking Skills and Cognitive Learning Outcomes. Ilkogretim Online, 20(1).

van Alten, D. C., Phielix, C., Janssen, J., & Kester, L. (2020). Self-regulated learning support in flipped learning videos enhances learning outcomes: computers & education, 158, 104000.

Wiliam, D., & Thompson, M. (2017). Integrating assessment with learning: What will it take to make it work? In The future of assessment (pp. 53–82). Routledge.

Wu, T. J., & Tai, Y. N. (2016). Effects of multimedia information technology integrated multi-sensory instruction on students’ learning motivation and outcome. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 12(4), 1065-1074.

Yang, Y., Zhu, G., Sun, D., & Chan, C. K. (2022). Collaborative analytics-supported reflective assessment for scaffolding pre-service teachers’ collaborative inquiry and knowledge building. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 17(2), 249-292.

Yuliani, H., Normilawati, T. A., & Aulia, M. (2021). Advantages and Disadvantages of Applying the NHT Type Cooperative Learning Model Physics Learning in School. Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Fisika, 5(1), 55-61.

Zuber, C., Zibung, M., & Conzelmann, A. (2016). Holistic patterns as an instrument for predicting the performance of promising young soccer players–A 3-year longitudinal study. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1088.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 English Review: Journal of English Education