Magdahalena Tjalla, Marlina Syamsir, Zulfah Zulfah, Abdul Haris Sunubi, Arqam Arqam


Abstract: This study analyzed classroom interaction patterns in four EFL virtual learning classes at IAIN Parepare: speaking, listening, writing, and reading. The purpose of this study was to give an overview of classroom interaction involving lecturers and students during the learning process. The researchers used a video recorder and field notes to capture the spoken and written interaction during the learning process. Data were transcribed and codified based on the intuitive taxonomy of the discourse act framework of Tsui. Data showed that both in spoken and written interaction, patterns of Initiation-Response (IR), Initiation-Response-Follow up (IRF), and Initiation-Response-Follow Up-Follow Up 2 (IRFF) occurred. In detail, the complete interaction patterns were in listening class, both in spoken and written form. In reading and writing classes, the Initiation-Response (IR) and the Initiation-Response-Feedback (IRF) occurred. However, in speaking, only Initiation-Response (IR) was produced. In written interaction, except in the listening class, only Initiation-Response (IR) occurred. Data also showed that utterance categories occurred less in written interaction than in spoken. Most of the interactions were done when the lecturer provided information on learning material and instructions on how to do assignments. Thus, there was no feedback given by the lecturer in this interaction. The study also found that the interaction was lecturer-centered, and both the lecturers and the students employed the L1 in the classroom interaction.  


classroom interaction patterns; EFL virtual learning; spoken interaction; written interaction.

Full Text:



Abdusyukur, M. R., Sudana, D., & Muslim, A. B. (2022). Exploring Indonesian EFL classroom interactions in an online setting. Journal of English Education and Teaching, 6(3), 445-457.

Alam, M. A., & Ashrafuzzaman, M. (2018). Challenges of developing speaking skill through classroom interaction of EFL learners. Prime University Journal, 12(1), 45-67.

Alraddadi, B. M. (2020). The impact of virtual classes on second language interaction in the Saudi EFL context: A case study of saudi undergraduate students Nesreen Saud Alahmadi. Arab World English Journal (AWEJ), 11(3), 23-32.

Alshumaimeri, Y. A., & Alhumud, A. M. (2021). EFL students' perceptions of the effectiveness of virtual classrooms in enhancing communication skills. English Language Teaching, 14(11), 80-96.

Alswilem, D. A. (2019). Saudi English teachers' use of technology in secondary classrooms: Perceptions, barriers, and suggestions for improvement. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 10(6), 168-178.

Atmojo, F. N. D., Saleh, M., & Widhiyanto, W. (2020). The implementation of Initiational Response Feedback (IRF) in EFL writing class. English Education Journal, 10(2), 225-233.

Ate, M. B., Kolo, C., & Bera, L. K. (2021). EFL classroom behaviours and interactions: A case study of a teacher and her students in a State Junior High School in academic year 2019/2020 in the city of Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara. Academic Journal of Educational Sciences, 5(2), 26-38.

Coulianos, N., Sapalidou, A., Krouska, A., Troussas, C., & Sgouropoulou, C. (2022). Evaluating e-learning process on virtual classroom systems using an ISO-based model. In Novel & Intelligent Digital Systems: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference (NiDS 2022) (pp. 33-45). Springer International Publishing.

Cong-Lem, N. (2018). Web-based Language Learning (WBLL) for enhancing l2 speaking performance: A review. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 9(4), 143-152.

Entusiastik., & Siregar, Y. D. (2022). The role of classroom interaction in online learning: Voices from the students. JEELS (Journal of English Education and Linguistics), 9(1), 51-73.

Eisenring, M. A. A., & Margana, M. (2019). The importance of teacher–students interaction in Communicative Language Teaching (CLT). Prasasti: Journal of linguistics, 4(1), 46-54.

Estaji., Masoomeh., & Shojakhanlou, M. M. (2022). Realization of initiation, response, and feedback in teacher-student interactions in EFL classrooms: Learning realities and opportunities. Two Quarterly Journal of English Language Teaching and Learning University of Tabriz, 14(30), 91-114.

Fibri, L. A. I. (2018). Classroom interaction patterns in EFL classroom at Jakarta Intensive Learning Centre (JILC). IDEAS: Journal on English Language Teaching and Learning, Linguistics and Literature, 6(2), 25-34.

Hakim, B. (2020). Technology integrated online classrooms and the challenges faced by the EFL teachers in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature, 9(5), 33-39.

Havwini, T. (2019, December). Investigating the interaction patterns in EFL virtual classroom: A case study. In 1st International Conference on Applied Economics and Social Science (ICAESS 2019) (pp. 166-170). Atlantis Press.

Huriyah, S., & Agustiani, M. (2018). An analysis of English teacher and learner talk in the classroom interaction. Linguistic, English Education and Art (LEEA) Journal, 2(1), 60-71.

Kartini, K., Syakira, S., & Aisyah, S. (2022). Initiation-response-feedback pattern used by lecturer-students in EFL classroom interaction. TLEMC (Teaching and Learning English in Multicultural Contexts), 6(1), 43-56.

Kassem, H. M. (2019). The impact of student-centered instruction on EFL learners' affect and achievement. English language teaching, 12(1), 134-153.

Kaymakamoglu, S. E. (2018). Teachers' beliefs, perceived practice and actual classroom practice in relation to traditional (teacher-centered) and constructivist (learner-centered) teaching (note 1). Journal of Education and Learning, 7(1), 29-37.

Khodabndeh, F. (2021). Comparing learners’ interactions in conventional and virtual classes of distance education university: Examining two approaches of teaching grammar. Two Quarterly Journal of English Language Teaching and Learning University of Tabriz, 13(27), 265-294.

Kholisoh, M. N., & Bharati, D. A. L. (2021). Teachers’ questioning strategies and students’ perceptions toward critical questions in EFL classroom interaction. ELT Forum: Journal of English Language Teachingm, 10(2), 136-145.

Kostadinovska-Stojchevska, B., & Popovikj, I. (2019). Teacher talking time vs. student talking time: Moving from teacher-centered classroom to learner-centered classroom. The International Journal of Applied Language Studies and Culture, 2(2), 25-31.

Li, H., & Lam, S. M. S. (2022). Is it inevitable for teachers to talk more? analysing classroom interaction using IRF in CFL classroom. International Journal of Chinese Language Education, 12, 99-126.

Li, J. (2018). L1 in the IRF cycle: a case study of chinese EFL classrooms. Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education, 3, 1-15.

Mardani, M., & Gorjizadeh, F. (2020). Discourse patterns of teacher/students and students/students in EFL classroom interactions. Journal of Language and Discourse Practice, 1(2), 11-23.

Mohammed, I. A. E. (2019). Investigation the impact of classroom interaction on EFL students’ proficiency. Omdurman Islamic University Journal, 15(1), 20-40.

Munir, U. M. (2018). Teacher's verbal feedback in the classroom interaction. Metathesis: Journal of English Language, Literature, and Teaching, 2(1), 122-146.

Nernere, M. S. (2019). Teachers’ beliefs on teacher-students interaction in young learners’ English class. Indonesian EFL Journal, 5(2), 113-120.

Pavón Vázquez, V., & Ramos Ordóñez, M. D. C. (2019). Describing the use of the L1 in CLIL: An analysis of L1 communication strategies in classroom interaction. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 22(1), 35-48.

Pratiwi, W. R. (2019). Teacher talk and instructional language choice: Two problems encountered in EFL classroom. ETERNAL (English, Teaching, Learning, and Research Journal), 5(1), 195-204.

Rasmitadila, R., Samsudin, A., & Prasetyo, T. (2019). Teacher-Students’ Instructional Interactions Analysis (TSIIA): A Case Study in Inclusive English classrooms in Indonesia. The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Educational Studies, 4(1), 24-32.

Sarhandi, P. S. A., Asghar, J., & Abidi, A. A. (2018). Interaction patterns in WhatsApp conversation in EFL Classroom: Pedagogical implications. Journal of Academic and Social Research, 1(1), 1-18.

Selamat, E. H., & Melji, S. M. (2022). Investigating the interactions between teacher and students in an EFL classroom. English Language Education Journal (ELEJ), 1(1), 23-42.

Tsui, A. B. (1995). Introducing Classroom Interaction. Penguin Books.

Tyrväinen, H., Uotinen, S., & Valkonen, L. (2021). Instructor presence in a virtual classroom. Open Education Studies, 3(1), 132-146.

Vindyasari, R., Ivone, F. M., & Wijayati, P. H. (2022). Classroom interaction in an online speaking class. Jurnal Pendidikan: Teori, Penelitian, dan Pengembangan, 7(1).

Weizheng, Z. (2019). Teacher-student interaction in EFL classroom in China: Communication accommodation theory perspective. English Language Teaching, 12(12), 99-111.

Winanta, A., Rochsantiningsih, D., & Supriyadi, S. (2020). Exploring EFL Classroom Interaction: An analysis of teacher talk at senior high school level. ELS Journal on Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities, 3(3), 328-343.

Willermark, S. (2021). Who’s there? Characterizing interaction in virtual classrooms. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 59(6), 1036-1055.

Yulia, M., & Zainil, Y. (2021). An analysis of teachers’ oral feedback in EFL classroom interaction at SMP Negeri 10 Batam. Journal of English Language Teaching, 10(1), 45-52.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.25134/erjee.v11i1.7878


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 English Review: Journal of English Education