Rita Tanduk


Effective intercultural communication is a cornerstone of today's globalized world, necessitating an exploration of the pragmatic aspects of speech acts from a cross-linguistic perspective. This research delves into the complex interplay between language, culture, and politeness strategies within the contexts of Bahasa Indonesia and Malay. Using a comprehensive datasets collected through observational field study in diverse naturalistic settings, including workplaces, educational institutions, and everyday social contexts, research examines the performance and interpretation of requests, apologies, compliments, and refusals. The findings reveal a shared preference for indirect and polite language when making requests in both linguistic communities, underlining the universality of politeness strategies. While Bahasa Indonesia speakers tend to employ explicit expressions of regret in apologies, Malay speakers adopt a more subtle approach. Compliments showcase differences, with Bahasa Indonesia speakers favoring direct expressions of admiration and Malay speakers employing nuanced language. Refusals demonstrate stark contrasts, with Malay speakers utilizing indirect strategies and Bahasa Indonesia speakers opting for directness. This study contributes to the growing discourse on cross-linguistic and cross-cultural pragmatics, emphasizing the importance of considering both linguistic diversity and cultural norms in understanding intercultural communication. This research, grounded in real-world interactions, calls for continued exploration of trans-cultural threads in speech act usage and offers valuable insights for enhancing intercultural competence. While acknowledging the study's limitations, researcher invites future research endeavors to delve deeper into the intricate world of speech acts and intercultural communication.


Pragmatics; Speech act; Intercultural communication; Politeness strategies

Full Text:



. H., . A., & . A. (2021). Hate Speech on Social Media: A Pragmatic Approach. KnE Social Sciences.

Adzim, S., Djatmika, & Sumarlam. (2019). Negative Politeness Strategies Indonesian People In The Twitter Account Of The President Joko Widodo. Lingua Didaktika: Jurnal Bahaswa Dan Pembelajaran Bahasa, 13(1).

Akmal, H., Syahriyani, A., & Handayani, T. (2022). Request Speech Act of Indonesian English Learners and Australian English Speakers through Cross-Cultural Pragmatic Perspectives. LEARN Journal: Language Education and Acquisition Research Network, 15(2).

Al-Athwary, A. A. H. (2022). Linguistic Landscape in Najran: A Sociolinguistic Approach. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 12(12).

Altikriti, S. F. (2011). Speech Act Analysis to Short Stories. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 2(6).

Archer, D., Aijmer, K., & Wichmann, A. (2021). Cross-cultural pragmatics 225 Cross-cultural and intercultural pragmatics. In Pragmatics.

Aufa, F. (2011). Explicit Pragmatic Instruction In. Journal of English and Education, 5(1).

Austin, J. (1962). How to do things with worlds. London: Oxford University Press.

Beebe, L., M., Takahashi, T., & Uliss-Weltz, R. (1990). Pragmatic transfer in ESL refusals. In R. C. Scarcella, E. Andersen, & S. D. Krashen (Eds.). Developing communicative competence in a second language (pp.55-73).

New York, USA: Newbury House.

Bhakoo, V., Koehler, T., Le, J. K., Lerman, M., Mees-Buss, J., Mmbaga, N. A., Piekkari, R., Schmid, T., Smith, A. D., & Welch, C. L. (2020). Templates in Qualitative Research Methods: Origins, Limitations, and New Directions. Academy of Management Proceedings, 2020(1).

Blum-Kulka, S., H. Juliane &K. Gabriele (Eds.), (1989). Cross-Cultural Pragmatics: Requests and Apologies. Norwood: Ablex Publishing Coorporation.

Brown & Levinson, S. (2011). Politeness ( Brown and Levinson 1987 ). Reading.

De Castro, L. S. T. (2022). Integrating Task-Based Learning and Pragmatics: Some practical ideas. Brazilian English Language Teaching Journal, 13(1).

Ekoro, D. E., & Gunn, M. (2021). Speech Act Theory And Gricean Pragmatics: A Review. Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research, 2021(4).

Fatmaja, J., & Saragih, G. (2021). Semantics and Pragmatics in Jacinda Ardern’s Speech. DEIKSIS, 13(1).

Fudholi, A., Hermawan, M. A., Ngatoillah, N., & Rosadi, N. (2023). Directive and Assertive Speech Acts in the Short Story Sleep Deprived by Charissa E. PROPAGANDA, 3(1).

Garcés-Conejos Blitvich, P., & Sifianou, M. (2017). (Im)politeness and identity. In The Palgrave Handbook of Linguistic (Im)politeness.

Grice, P. (1975). Logic and conversation. In P. Cole & J. Morgan (Eds.), Syntax and semantics 3: Speech acts (pp. 41-58). New York: Academic Press. Retrieved from

Gunawan, J. D., & Tjitrakusuma, N. I. (2021). The Politeness Strategies Found in @kulinersby’s Instagram Account in Promoting Culinary Businesses. K@ta, 23(2).

Haugh, M., & Watanabe, Y. (2017). (Im)politeness theory. In The Routledge Handbook of Language in the Workplace.

Hall, E. T. (1976). Beyond culture. New York: Random House.

Ifantidou, E. (2013). Pragmatic competence and explicit instruction. Journal of Pragmatics, 59.

Kádár, D. Z., & Zhang, S. (2019). (Im)politeness and alignment. Acta Linguistica Academica, 66(2).

Kádár, Y. P. and D. Z. (2011). Politeness in Historical and Contemporary Chinese. In Journal of Pragmatics (Vol. 43, Issue 1).

Köhler, T., Smith, A., & Bhakoo, V. (2019). Feature Topic for ORM : “Templates in Qualitative Research Methods” . Organizational Research Methods, 22(1).

Levinson, B. &. (1987). Politeness ( Brown and Levinson 1987 ). Reading.

Lili, H. (2018). Tindak Tutur Guru dalam Pembelajaran Bahasa Indonesia. Menara Ilmu, 12(79).

Mapson, R. (2019). Im/politeness and interpreting. In The Routledge Handbook of Translation and Pragmatics.

Maruf, N. (2018). A Conceptual metaphor study in Pasang ri Kajang to reveal the cognition, ideologies, and socio–culture of kajang people. … Thesis). Universitas Hasanuddin. Makassar. Indonesia.

Mœschler, J. (1992). The pragmatic aspects of linguistic negation: Speech act, argumentation and pragmatic inference. Argumentation, 6(1).

Mualimin, M. (2021). Pragmatic Aspects in Anne Hathaway’s Speech: A Speech Act Study.

Olshtain, E., & Cohen, D. (1983). Apology: a speech act set. In N. Wolfson, & E. Judd (Eds.), Sociolinguistics and

language acquisition (pp. 18-35). Rowley: Newbury House.

Pragmatic Study of Directive Speech Acts in Stories in Alquran. (2016). Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 7(5).

Prayitno, H. J., Kusmanto, H., Nasucha, Y., Rahmawati, L. E., Jamaluddin, N., Samsuddin, S., & Ilma, A. A. (2019). The Politeness Comments on The Indonesian President Jokowi Instagram Official Account Viewed From Politico Pragmatics and The Character Education Orientation in The Disruption Era. Indonesian Journal on Learning and Advanced Education (IJOLAE), 1(2).

RABEL, C. J. (2018). A Qualitative Study on Perceptions of the Communication, Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivational Factors on the Job Satisfaction of Employees. In ProQuest (Issue March).

Risselada, R. (2019). Directives As Speech Acts. In Imperatives and Other Directive Expressions in Latin.

Rizka, B., Lismalinda, Adnan, Moriyanti, & Faisal. (2020). Jokowi Vs Prabowo: The Politeness And Its Violation In Political Communication Of Indonesian President Candidates. Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, 8(3).

Santoso, I., Tuckyta, E., Sujatna, S., & Mahdi, S. (2014). Speech act on short stories; a pragmatic study. The International Journal of Social Sciences, 19(1).

Searle, J. R. (1969). Speech acts: An essay

in the philospohy of language. Cambridge University Press.

Searle, J. (1969). Speech Acts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Silitonga, N., & Pasaribu, A. N. (2021). Politeness Strategy Used By Indonesian Netizens On Anies Baswedan�S Twitter And Instagram Account. Edu-Ling: Journal of English Education and Linguistics, 4(2).

Tajeddin, Z., & Bagherkazemi, M. (2021). Implicit and Explicit Pragmatic Learning Strategies: Their Factorial Structure and Relationship with Speech Act Knowledge. TESL-EJ, 25(3).

Tanduk, R., Maruf, N., & Suluh, S. (2021). Myths and Ideology in Customary Ritual of Ma’tammu Tedong for Life of Toraja People. Budapest International Research and Critics Institute (BIRCI-Journal): Humanities and Social Sciences, 4(2).

Upton, B. G. (2021). Speech Act Theory as an Appropriate Branch of Pragmatics. In Hearing Mark’s Endings.

Utami, E. W., Rokhman, F., & Mardikantoro, H. B. (2021). Language Choice in Social Media Instagram Found In @Jokowi Account. Seloka: Jurnal Pendidikan Bahasa Dan Sastra Indonesia, 10(3).

Wang, B., & Wu, Z. (2021). Cross-Cultural Awareness of College Students Based on Cross-Cultural Communication. Tobacco Regulatory Science, 7(5).

Wijayanto, A., Laila, M., Prasetyarini, A., & Susiati, S. (2013). Politeness in interlanguage pragmatics of complaints by Indonesian learners of English. English Language Teaching, 6(10).

Wittgenstein L. (2009). Philosophical Investigations. (4th ed.) Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Xiao, R., & Lee, C. (2022). English in the linguistic landscape of the Palace Museum: a field-based sociolinguistic approach. Social Semiotics, 32(1).



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 English Review: Journal of English Education